Charlotte Malachowski Buhler
Born: December 20, 1893 in Berlin, Germany
Died: February 3, 1974 in Stuttgart, West Germany
Doctor of Philosophy (1918), University of Munich, Psychology
B.S. (1915), University of Berlin, Psychology

1923 Assistant Professor at the University of Vienna

Conducted research in the Vienna Psychological Institute

1924 Studied child and youth psychology at Columbia University Teachers College with Edward Thorndike

1929 Guest professor at Barnard College as a Rockefeller Fellow

1929 Associate Professor at the University of Vienna

1938 Nazis invaded Austria, closed the Vienna Psychological Institute, and destroyed all research records

1938 Karl Buhler was imprisoned while Charlotte was in England

Karl and Charlotte were forced to flee Austria for political and racial reasons

Professor of psychology at the College of St. Catherine in St. Paul, MN

1941 Director of a child guidance clinic in Worcester, MA

1943 Clinical psychologist at the Minneapolis General Hospital

1953 Humanistic private practice in Los Angeles, CA

1964 Organized the Old Saybrook Conference that led to the establishment of the Association for Humanistic Psychology with Maslow, Rogers, and Frankl

Charlotte Buhler is best known for her contributions to humanistic psychology. She was instrumental in distinguishing humanistic psychology (the "Third-Force") from psychoanalysis and behaviorism.
1965 President of American Association for Humanisitic Psychology
1970 Presided over the first International Conference on Humanisitic Psychology

Key Words: humanistic psychology, life-span developmental psychology, child and youth psychology, life goals inventory
Buhler Web Links

Mary Whiton Calkins
Born: March 30, 1863 in Hartford, CT
Died: February 27, 1930 in Newton, MA
B.A. (1885), Smith College, Classics and Philosophy

1887 Faculty member at Wellesley College

1890 Trained in psychology and philosophy at Harvard and Clark Universities

1891 Psychology instructor at Wellesley College and established one of the first experimental psychology laboratories in the United States

Trained in advanced psychology under Hugo Münsterberg until 1894

1895 Associate professor of psychology and philosophy at Wellesley College

1896 Refused admission to Harvard University as a doctoral candidate

1898 Professor at Wellesley College

1902 Offered a doctoral degree by Radcliffe College (Harvard counterpart for women), Calkins declined in protest

Mary Calkins is best known for her contributions to psychology and philosophy. She advocated self-psychology, consciousness, emotion, and dreams even as behaviorism emerged as the dominant zeitgeist.
1905 Elected first woman president of the American Psychological Association
1918 Elected first woman president of the American Philosophical Association
1908 Ranked twelfth leading psychologist in the United States
1909 Honorary Doctor of Letters degree by Columbia University
1910 Honorary Doctor of Laws degree by Smith College

Key Words: self-psychology, paired-associate method, attributes of sensation, space and time consciousness, emotion, color theory and dreams, religiousness of children, personalistic absolutism, atomistic psychology, science of selves
Calkins Web Links

Mamie Phipps Clark
Born: April 18, 1917 in Hot Springs, AR
Died: August 11, 1983 in New York, NY
Doctor of Philosophy (1943), Columbia University, Psychology
M.A. (1940), Howard University, Psychology
B.S. (1938), Howard University, Psychology

The only African-American student in the psychology program at Columbia University

Employed by the United States Armed Forces Institute as a research psychologist

Counseled homeless African-American girls at the Riverdale Home for Children in NY

1946 Established the Northside Center for Child Development in a Harlem basement apartment

1954 Work by Mamie and Kenneth Clark cited by Supreme Court in the Brown v. Board of Education case

Mamie Clark is best known for her contributions to the study of segregation and self-image of minority children. -OKLAHOMA STATE UNIVERSITY-
Key Words: psychology of minorities, segregation, White Doll Test, Black Doll Test, children's self-image, Kenneth Clark
Clark Web Links

Florence Levin Denmark
Born: January 28, 1932 in Philadelphia, PA
Doctor of Philosophy (1958), University of Pennsylvania, Psychology
A.M. (1954), University of Pennsylvania, Psychology
B.A. (1952), University of Pennsylvania Women's College, Psychology; History

1964 Instructor of psychology at Hunter College

1967 Assistant Professor at Hunter College

1972 Executive Officer of the psychology doctoral program at Hunter College

1973 Professor at Hunter College

1973 Founder of the American Psychological Association Psychology of Women division

1981 Established the International Interdisciplinary Congress on Women

1988 Instructor at Pace University

Florence Denmark is best known for her contributions to the psychology of women and gender. -OKLAHOMA STATE UNIVERSITY-
1978 New York State Psychological Association Kurt Lewin Award
1980 Association of Women Psychologists Outstanding Women in Science Award
1980 President of Psi Chi
1980 President of the American Psychological Association (APA)
1981 International Organization for Study of Group Tensions Distinguished Contribution
1984 Thomas Hunter Professor from Hunter College
1986 The Association for Women in Psychology Distinguished Career Award
1987 APA Distinguished Contributions to Education and Training in Psychology Award
1989 President of the International Council of Psychologists
1992 APA Distinguished Contribution to Psychology in the Public Interest Award
1998 Psi Chi Thelma Hunt Research Award
Robert S. Pace Distinguished Professor from Pace University
Doctor of Humane Letters from the Massachusetts School of Professional Psychology and Cedar Crest College
Key Words: psychology of women, psychology of gender, leadership, international psychology
Denmark Web Links