*Resources for Computing and
Evaluating Factor Scores*

This web site offers a number of resources for computing and evaluating factor scores in the context of an exploratory factor analysis. The information herein is presented in a relatively nontechnical fashion and is directed primarily toward researchers and practitioners. Specific details regarding many of the ideas herein can be found in Grice (2001), a recent special issue of Multivariate Behavioral Research, or in one of many excellent articles published on factor scores.

**Information Regarding Factor Scores**

- What is a factor score?
- What is factor score indeterminacy?
- Why is it important to evaluate factor score indeterminacy and factor score estimates?
- How are factor score estimates computed?
- How is indeterminacy assessed and how are factor score estimates evaluated?

**SAS IML Programs for Computing
and Evaluating Factor Score Estimates.**

These programs are reported and described in:Grice, J. W. (2001). Computing and evaluating factor scores.430-450Psychological Methods, 6,.(Raw Data and Correlation Matrixreported in this manuscript).Evaluating Refined (Exact) Factor Scores

Computing Coarse (Inexact) Factor Scores, based on...

- Thurstone's Regression (Equation 5): Maximizes multiple R-square. {example} {annotated output}
- ten Berge et al. (Equation 8): Correlation Preserving. {example} {annotated output}
- Bartlett (Equation 9): Univocal for orthogonal factors.
- "Idealized Variables" (Equation 10): Univocal for orthogonal factors.
Evaluating Coarse Factor ScoresThurstone's Regression (Equation 5). {example} {annotated output} ten Berge et al. (Equation 8). Bartlett (Equation 9). "Idealized Variables" (Equation 10) Program for evaluating composite factor scores. {example} {annotated output}

Methods and Formulas for Computing Factor Scores Factor Score Indeterminacy Factor Score Indeterminacy: Extensive Commentary in Multivariate Behavioral Research(Vol. 31, 1996)Manuscripts Comparing or Discussing Different Methods of Computing Factor Scores

^{* }If you are aware of a relevant reference that is not listed, please send it to me and I will add it.

**Complete Tables of Results (in .pdf
format) from:**